It took more than a hundred years from the discovery of titanium to the production of pure products. Titanium is really used, and knowing its true face is something after the 1940s.
In the ten-kilometer-rich stratum of the geographical surface, titanium contains up to six thousandths, which is 6 times more than copper . Grab a handful of dirt from the ground, which contains a few thousandth of titanium. The world's reserves of more than 10 million tons of titanium ore are not rare.
Success of tons of sand, both titanium and zirconium minerals heavier than sand on a beach, it is mixed in the sand and gravel, after water washing millions of years around the clock, the heavier iron titanium ore Together with the zircon sand mine, a piece of titanium ore and zirconium deposits are formed on the long coast. This layer of mineral is a black sand, usually a few centimeters to tens of centimeters thick.
Titanium is not magnetic, and nuclear submarines built with titanium do not have to worry about magnetic mines.
In 1947, people began to smelt titanium in the factory. In that year, the output was only 2 tons. In 1955, production surged to 20,000 tons. In 1972, the annual output reached 200,000 tons. Titanium is about the same hardness as steel, and its weight is almost half that of the same volume of steel. Although titanium is slightly heavier than aluminum , its hardness is twice that of aluminum. Now, in space rockets and missiles, titanium is used in large quantities instead of steel. According to statistics, currently the world's titanium annually for space travel, has reached more than one thousand tons of fine titanium powder, or a good fuel rocket, known as the universe so titanium metal, space metal.
Titanium has good heat resistance and its melting point is as high as 1725 °C. At normal temperature, titanium can be safely placed in a variety of strong acid and alkali solutions. Even the most ferocious acid, aqua regia, can't erode it. Titanium is not afraid of sea water. Some people once sank a piece of titanium to the bottom of the sea. After five years, they took it up and saw that there were many small animals and sea plants on the top, but there was no rust at all, and it was still shining.
Now, people are starting to use titanium to make a submarine, a titanium submarine. Because the titanium is very strong and can withstand high pressures, the submarine can sail in deep seas as deep as 4,500 meters.
Titanium is corrosion resistant, so it is often used in the chemical industry. In the past, parts of the chemical reactor containing hot nitric acid were made of stainless steel. Stainless steel is also afraid of the strong corrosive agent - hot nitric acid, which should be replaced every six months. Now, titanium is used to make these parts. Although it costs more than stainless steel parts, it can be used continuously for five years, which is much more computationally efficient.
The biggest disadvantage of titanium is that it is difficult to refine. Mainly because titanium has a strong ability to combine at high temperatures and can be combined with oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and many other elements. Therefore, people are careful to prevent these elements from "invading" titanium, whether during smelting or casting. When smelting titanium, air and water are of course strictly forbidden. Even the alumina crucible commonly used in metallurgy is forbidden because titanium will take oxygen from alumina. Nowadays, titanium is used to refine titanium by reacting magnesium with titanium tetrachloride in an inert gas, helium or argon.
People use the characteristics of titanium to have high chemical compounding ability at high temperature. When steel is used, nitrogen is easily dissolved in molten steel. When the steel ingot is cooled, bubbles are formed in the steel ingot, which affects the quality of the steel. Therefore, the steelworker adds titanium metal to the molten steel to make it combine with nitrogen to form a slag, titanium nitride, which floats on the surface of the molten steel, so that the steel ingot is relatively pure. [next]
When a supersonic aircraft flies, its wings can reach a temperature of 500 °C. If the wing is made of a heat-resistant aluminum alloy, one to two or three Baidu will not be able to eat, and there must be a light, tough, high temperature resistant material instead of aluminum alloy, which can meet these requirements. Titanium can withstand the test of minus one hundred degrees. At this low temperature, titanium still has good toughness and is not brittle.
The strong absorption of air by titanium and zirconium removes air and creates a vacuum. For example, a vacuum pump made of titanium can pump air to only one part per million.
Titanium oxide, titanium dioxide, is a white powder and is the best white pigment, commonly known as titanium dioxide. In the past, people used to mine titanium ore, the main purpose is to obtain titanium dioxide. Titanium white has strong adhesion, is not easy to change chemically, and is always white. Particularly valuable is titanium white non-toxic. It has a high melting point and is used to make fire-resistant glass, glaze, concrete, clay, and high temperature resistant experimental vessels.
Titanium dioxide is the whitest thing in the world, and 1 gram of titanium dioxide can coat more than 450 square centimeters of snow. It is five times whiter than the commonly used white pigment, zinc white, so it is the best pigment for white paint. Titanium dioxide used as a pigment in the world, from more than a few hundred thousand tons a year. Titanium dioxide can be added to paper to make the paper white and opaque, and the effect is 10 times larger than other materials. Therefore, titanium dioxide is added to banknote paper and art paper. In addition, in order to make the color of the plastic lighter and to make the rayon soft, it is sometimes necessary to add titanium dioxide. In the rubber industry, titanium dioxide is also used as a filler for white rubber.
Titanium tetrachloride is an interesting liquid that has a pungent odor and emits white smoke in wet air - it hydrolyzes and turns into a white titanium dioxide hydrogel. In the military, people use the temper of titanium tetrachloride as an artificial aerosol. Especially in the ocean, there is a lot of water and a titanium tetrachloride. The smoke is like a white Great Wall, blocking the enemy's sight. In agriculture, people use titanium tetrafluoride to prevent frost.
Barium titanate crystals have such a characteristic that when it is changed in shape by pressure, an electric current is generated, and when it is energized, the shape is changed. Therefore, the barium titanate is placed in the ultrasonic wave, and it is subjected to a voltage to generate a current, and the magnitude of the current generated by the barium can be used to measure the strength of the ultrasonic wave. Instead, ultrasonic waves can be generated by passing it through a high frequency current. Today, barium titanate is used in almost all ultrasonic instruments. In addition, barium titanate has many uses. For example, the railroad worker placed it under the rails to measure the pressure when the train passed; the doctor used it to make a pulse recorder. The underwater detector made of barium titanate is a sharp underwater eye. It can not only see the fish, but also the reefs under the water, icebergs and enemy submarines.
When smelting titanium, it takes a complicated step. The ilmenite is converted into titanium tetrachloride, placed in a sealed stainless steel tank, and filled with argon to cause them to react with magnesium metal to obtain "sponge titanium". Such porous "sponge titanium" cannot be used directly, and they must be melted into a liquid in an electric furnace to be cast into a titanium ingot. But how easy it is to make such an electric stove! In addition to the fact that the air in the electric furnace must be cleaned, it is even more troublesome to find a crucible containing liquid titanium, because the refractory part contains oxides, and the oxygen in it is taken away by liquid titanium. Later, people finally invented a "water-cooled copper gong" electric furnace. In this electric furnace, only a part of the central area is very hot, and the rest is cold. After melting in an electric furnace, the titanium flows to the wall of the copper crucible cooled by water and immediately condenses into a titanium ingot. In this way it has been possible to produce several tons of titanium blocks, but its cost can be imagined.

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